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Resveratrol


Resveratrol

Resveratrol is a phenolic compound produced by grapevines (and other plants such as peanut and eucalyptus trees), particularly in response to microbial attack or artificial agents such as ultraviolet radiation. Resveratrol is also found in other grape products such as juice and raisins. Resveratrol belongs to a class of compounds called stilbenes. muscadinia grapes or from pinot noir tend to have high levels of resveratrol, whereas cabernet sauvignon has lower levels.

IS IT SAFE? ARE THERE SIDE EFFECTS?

Topical resveratrol has been shown to have low toxicity and limited side effects.

EFFECTS ON HAIR LOSS

Perifollicular fibrosis, a consequence of chronic inflammatory process is constantly present in alopecia. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression has been demonstrated to have a direct association with inflammation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress occurs as a result of inadequate antioxidant defense or overproduction of free radicals . The resulting oxidized lipoproteins may damage cellular and subcellular membranes, leading to tissue injury and cell death, besides Resveratrol also suppresses tumor necrosis factor– induced activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B, activator protein-1, and apoptosis. All of this well known mechanisms involved in miniaturization, hair loss and permanent alopecia, as demonstrated by B E Prie Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia.Journal of Medicine and Life, 01/2016, Volume 9, Issue 1. Topical application of resveratrol to protect against UVB-mediated skin damage as well as inhibit UVB-induced oxidative stress.

STRUCTURE & SYNTHESIS

Best way to obtain Resveratrol is through a process called The Heck reaction

MECHANISMS OF ACTION

Works as an extraordinary anti-inflammatory by its ability to reduce COX-2 expression, and one of the best antioxidants known to date. Has many other important biologic activities, including inhibition of lipid peroxidation, free radical scavenging, alteration of eicosanoid synthesis, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and anticancer activity,  modulation of lipid metabolism, cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. 

1.- Belguendouz L, Fremont L, Linard A. Resveratrol inhibits metal ion-dependent and independent peroxidation of porcine low density lipoproteins. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997;53:1347-1355.
2.- Fauconneau B, Waffo-Teguo P, Huguet F, et al. Comparative study of radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Vitis vinifera cell cultures using in vitro tests. Life Sci. 1997;61:2103-2110.
3.- Olas B, Wachowicz B, Saluk-Juszczak J, et al. Effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on platelet activation induced by endotoxin or thrombin. Thromb Res. 2002; 107:141-145.
4.- Bertelli AA, Ferrara F, Diana G, et al. Resveratrol, a natural stilbene in grapes and wine, enhances intraphagocytosis in human promonocytes: a co-factor in antiinflammatory and anticancer chemopreventive activity. Int J Tissue React. 1999;21:93-104.
5.- Zini R, Morin C, Bertelli A, et al. Effects of resveratrol on the rat brain respiratory chain. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;25:87-97.
6.- Manna SK, Mukhopadhyay A, Aggarwal BB. Resveratrol suppresses TNF-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B, activator protein-1, and apoptosis: potential role of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxidation. J Immunol. 2000;164:6509-6519.
7.- Resveratrol decreases noise-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the rat cochlea. Seidman M.D., Tang W., Bai V.U., Ahmad N., Jiang H., Media J., Patel N., (...), Standring R.T.
(2013) Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States), 148 (5) , pp. 827-833.
8.- Resveratrol protects auditory hair cells from gentamicin toxicity. By: Bonabi, Sharouz, Caelers, Antje, Monge, Arianne, Huber, Alex, Bodmer, Daniel, ENT: Ear, Nose & Throat Journal, 01455613, Oct2008, Vol. 87, Issue 10
9.- Goldberg, D. M., et al., ‘A global survey of trans-resveratrol concentrations in commercial wines’, American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 46 (1995), 159–65.
Szekeres, T., Fritzer-Szekeres, M., Saiko, P. et al. Resveratrol and Resveratrol Analogues—Structure—Activity Relationship Pharm Res (2010) 27: 1042. doi:10.1007/s11095-010-0090-1
10.- B E Prie Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia.Journal of Medicine and Life, 01/2016, Volume 9, Issue 1
11.- Hadi SM, Ullah MF, Azmi AS, Ahmad A, Shamim U, Zubair H, Khan HY. Resveratrol mobilizes endogenous copper in human peripheral lymphocytes leading to oxidative DNA breakage: a putative mechanism for chemoprevention of cancer. Pharm Res.2010;27:979–988.
12.- Chen ML, Li J, Xiao WR, et al. Protective effect of resveratrol against oxidative damage of UVA irradiated HaCaT cells. Jhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Ban. 2006 Oct; 31(5):635–9.