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An Advanced Conditioner
What Separates Roots?
Roots includes cationically charged active ingredients that remain on your scalp even after rinsing, and includes polymers that increase your hair volume as soon as a single use.
Advanced, bioactive ingredients are included in Roots to nourish and provide your hair with the support it needs at a follicle level. These natural active ingredients, some which are patent protected, have been shown to strengthen and lengthen hair.
Using a patented charging process, Roots Conditioner's active ingredients remain on the scalp even after rinsing. This is possible because of the cationic charge that these ingredients have, which allows them to cling to the scalp even after rinsing with water.
During the process of hair optimization, it is vital that your hair continues to appear full. Roots uses both short and long-term volumizers to increase hair shaft diameter.* By adding natural volumizers, Roots ensures that the appearance of your hair will look natural as you continue on the process of Total Hair Optimization.
DHT Blocker, Hair Stimulant
Caffeine is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that reduces the proliferation of DHT in the hair follicle. This results in enhanced hair shaft elongation, prolonged anagen duration, and stimulation of hair matrix keratinocytes. Caffeine counteracts testosterone-enhanced TGF-Beta2 protein expression (catagen phase promotion) in male HFs and enhances intrafollicular IGF-1 protein expression (anagen maintenance). IGF-1 stimulation by caffeine may even counteract human hair follicle ageing due to increased hair diameter and density.
Caffeine increases the intracellular adenylate cyclase activity and enhanced cyclic 3’,5’-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. This mechanism counteracts testosterone/DHT-induced miniaturization of the hair follicle. Caffeine induced-suppressive effect of testosterone leads to increased mean hair shaft length and therefore stimulation of hair follicle growth.
Additionally, caffeine's phosphodiesterase inhibition directly mitigates apoptosis or programmed cell death aka caffeine allows for hair follicles to live longer. Caffeine reduces the amount of reactive nitrogen species and protein oxidation from free radicals. Caffeine’s clear antioxidative properties protect the hair follicle.
Figure 1. This experiment examined hair shaft length with both a 0.001% Caffeine concentration and a 0.005% Caffeine concentration. Caffeine led to higher hair shaft elongation after 120 hours of cultivation time when compared with a caffeine-free control.
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plays an important role in hair growth. The soy isoflavone, capsaicin, activates vanilloid receptor-1 which releases CGRP form sensory neurons. CGRP leads to increased IGF-I production. Dermal IGF-I levels were significantly higher in WT mice administered capsaicin and isoflavone for 4 weeks than in WT mice administered capsaicin alone for 4 weeks. Dermal IGF-I levels were significantly higher in WT mice administered capsaicin and isoflavone for 4 weeks than in WT mice administered capsaicin alone for 4 weeks. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I at dermal papillae in hair follicles was clearly higher in mice administered capsaicin and isoflavone for 4 weeks and in those administered capsaicin alone for 4 weeks than in those administered with neither capsaicin and isoflavone. Since isoflavone increases CGRP production by increasing its transcription in sensory neurons, capsaicin and isoflavone might synergistically increase dermal IGF-I levels by increasing the production and release of CGRP in sensory neurons. Additionally, since IGF-I receptor mRNA was detected in keratinocytes, it is possible that IGF-I produced by dermal papilla cells acts on keratinocytes, thereby promoting hair growth through stimulation of the proliferation of keratinocytes in hair follicles.
The main isoflavones of soy, genistein and daidzein, are known to inhibit 5a-reductase. THis enzyme is involved in the conversation of testosterone to DHT, the main androgen responsible for male pattern baldness. There is a strong possibility that soy isoflavones generate a significant effect on the DHT level in as much as they are known inhibitors of 5a-reductase.
Figure 1. This experiment examined the effect of subcutaneous administration of capsaicin on dermal leves of IGF-I and IGF-I mRNA levels at 30 minutes after administration. Dermal levels of IGF-I and IGF-I mRNA were significantly increased in the wildtype mice. These results strongly suggest that capsaicin increases IGF-I production in the skin by both increasing the transcription and release of CGRP in sensory neurons.
Anageline Lupine Protein Study
Lupine protein inhibits the activity of 5a-reductase II, limiting the transformation of testosterone into 5a-DHT, a hormone responsible for male pattern baldness. Lupine proteins additionally increase vascular density around the hair follicle, facilitating the supply of oxygen and nutrients required for hair development. Lupine proteins stimulate the differentiation capacity of cells in the hair bulb and favors the keratinization needed for hair growth. A study examined topical lupine protein applied for over 20 weeks. After just 12 weeks of treating balding subjects, lupine protein increased hair density and increased the anagen:telogen ratio. These are both key indicators of preventing further hair loss.
Figure 1. This study examined hair density and density of hair in the anagen growth phase topical lupine protein over a 20 week period. The dark bar represents total hair density and the lighter bar represents densit of hair in the anagen phase. Topical protein has significant hair stimulating qualities.
Figure 2. This study examined the anagen to telogen ration of topical lupine protein over a 20 week period. Topical lupine protein has significant hair stimulating qualities.
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a major signal transduction pathway playing a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation. PKC acts as a negative hair-growing factor. In human hair follicles, expression of PKC-Alpha, -Beta, -Gamma, are present in root sheath keratinocytes and PKC-n has been confirmed in outer roots sheaths in hair follicles. Procyanidin B-2 is a polyphenol compound which inhibits protein kinase C. It is commonly found in plant species such as apples and grape seeds. Procyanidin B-2 decreases the level of PKC-alpha specifically, the intracellular localization of PKC isozymes in the skin. The topical application of procyanidin B-2 increases the anagen-telogen ratio, leading to increased hair diameter and density.
Figure 1. This study examined the effects of Procyanidin B-2 on TGF-B1 induced apoptosis. TGF-B1 is a growth factor involved in the regulation of hair follicle regression by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation. Addition of Procyanidin B-2 to the medium containing TGF-B1 almost entirely counteracted the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-B1 and protected the cells from apoptosis.
Figure 2. Procyanidin B-2 not only has catagen protecting effects but hair follicle stimulating properties. The mechanism for cell growth is the MAPK cascade. It has been reported that activation of MEK upregulates the expression of Bcl-xL which is an antiapoptotic factor.
Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Nutrient Delivery
Resveratrol is a polyphenol present in grapes, especially in its peel and in its seeds. Polyphenols function includes radical scavenging, antiplasmin inhibition, antimutagenic, bactericidal, and tyrosinase inhibiting activities. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) play a critical role in regulating hair follicle development and periodic regeneration. Polyphenols can increase fibroblast survival and therefore increase the stimulation of hair growth via DPCs. A well-established antioxidant reduces androgen-induced TGF-Beta1 secretion promoting hair shaft elongation.
Resveratrol acts a primary antioxidant reacting to free radicals and neutralizing their negative effects. Topically, exogenic resveratrol decreases the action of free radicals in a similar manner as endogenous antioxidants. Resveratrol leads to improved endothelial function. Meaning, resveratrol leads to increased blood flow to your hair follicles. This leads increased stimulation of growth of the vellus hair follicles and a reverse the progressive miniaturization of terminal follicles.
The frontal balding area is mainly caused by perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate. The infiltrate often contains cytokines which induce proinflammatory cellular activation at the level of microvascular endothelium. The chronic excretion of the proinflammatory factors contributes to permanent hair loss, mainly in the frontal balding area. Resveratrol down regulates the body’s inflammatory response leading to significant decreases in frontal thinning.
Figure 1. This study assess the radical scavenging activity of topically applied Resveratrol remaining in each skin layer after in vitro topical application. The inhibition results from the in vivo and the in vitro assays, considering only the stratum corner (SC) layer, were similar. Resveratrol as a radical scavenger is signicant both in vivo and in vitro.
Apple Stem Cell Extract
Antioxidant & Hair Follicle Stimulant
Apple stems cells improve the health of the protective layer of skin on the scalp. A 2% apple stem cell extract reverses the aging process of skin fibroblasts by upregulating the expression of several expression of several genes vital for cellular proliferation and growth as well as stimulate the expression of the known antioxidant enzyme hemeoxygenase-1. The addition of apple stem cells has been shown to postpone deteriorate and cell death of hair follicles. Therefore, apple stem cells increase the lifespan of human hair follicles.
- Schmid, Daniel, et al. “Stimulation of Stem Cells for Real Rejuvenation.” Mibelle Biochemistry, Aug. 2008.
- Trehan, Sonia, et al. “Plant Stem Cells in Cosmetics: Current Trends and Future Directions.”Future Science OA, vol. 3, no. 4, 2017, doi:10.4155/fsoa-2017-0026.
- PavlovicÌ, Mirjana, and Ksenija RadoticÌ. Animal and Plant Stem Cells: Concepts, Propagation and Engineering. Springer, 2017.
There are many androgen-independent mechanisms leading to hair loss. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that the levels of apoptosis and senescence are significantly increased in balding DPCs when compared to non-balding DPCs. In these cells, reactive oxidative species (ROS) play a larger role inducing these cellular phenotypes.
Arctiin is the lignin chemical reagent isolated from Arctium Majus. This chemical reagent exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-microbial effects. Additionally, it is known to play a protective effect against UVB radiation in skin cells including but not limited to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Arctium Majus drastically inhibits intracellular ROS levels. Recent reports demonstrated that the loss of proliferative capacity of balding dermal papilla cells is associated with expression of SA-β-gal markers of oxidative stress. Arctium Majus inhibited the upregulation of SA-β-gal. This allows for dermal papilla cells to grow and decrease the inflammation faced by the follicle, more specifically by the dermal papilla cells.
Arctium inhibited ROS-mediated cell death and senescence in Human Hair DPCs. ROS generation mediated by H2O2 is characterized in cell death and cell cycle arrest in several cell lines. Pretreatment of arctiin inhibits H2O2-mediated ROS generation. Loss of proliferative capacity of balding dermal papilla cells is associated with expression changes in SA-Beta-gal and markers of oxidative stress. Arctiin molecules inhibited H2O2-mediated upregulation of SA-Beta-gal activity in human hair DPCs.
Ginseng extract is a popular herbal medicine used globally for a broad range of conditions. Ginseng extract’s hair growth-promoting effects are associated with the components of ginseng extract: ginsenoside-Rb1 and 20(s)-ginsenoside-Rg3. Both components act as anti-inflammatories which link to its ability to promote hair regrowth.
Ginseng extract is a popular herbal medicine used globally for a broad range of conditions. Ginseng extract’s hair growth-promoting effects are associated with the components of ginseng extract: ginsenoside-Rb1 and 20(s)-ginsenoside-Rg3. Both components act as anti-inflammatories which link to its ability to promote hair regrowth. The effects of Ginseng Extract are associated with activated ERK and AKT signaling. ERK activation plays an important role in the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). AKT mediates critical signals for cell survival and regulates the survival of DPCs as an antiapoptotic molecule. Activation of AKT by ginseng extract may prolong the survival of hDPCs. Ginseng extract inhibits 5a-reductase which in turn decreases the presence of DHT. Ginseng extract additionally inhibits the DHT-induced upregulation of androgen receptors in hDPCs. Ginseng Extract has been shown to increase proliferation of hair matrix cells and hair matrix keratinocytes.
Biotin is a water-soluble B-vitamin. Biotin can improve the health of your hair and minimize hair loss if you are deficient in the vitamin. Topically, biotin coats each hair strand and increases the diameter of each existing hair.